Jules Olitski (March 27, 1922 – February 4, 2007) was a Russian-born American painter who was instrumental in the development of the Color Field school. Like his contemporaries Helen Frankenthaler and Morris Louis, Olitski stained the surface of his canvases in a technique that rejected the gestural brushwork of the then-popular Abstract Expressionist artists. With their emphasis on material, surface, and color's emotional strength, his signature works eliminated the illusion of depth and any evidence of the artist's touch. His abstract "spray paintings" of the 1960s are considered landmark works of this movement.

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Fourth Caliph